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 Earth and Environmental Systems (HBSc)
SchoolUniversity of Toronto - St. George
LocationToronto, ON, Canada
School TypeUniversity
School SizeFull-time Undergraduate: 43,790
Full-time Graduate: 19,074
Length4 Year(s)
Entry Grade (%)*80% to 100%
  •  Grade12 Calculus and Vectors 
  •  Grade12 Chemistry 
  •  Grade12 English 
Prerequisites NotesApplicants are required to have an Ontario Secondary School Diploma, and six 4U/M courses, including: Calculus & Vectors (MCV4U), Chemistry (SCH4U), and English (ENG4U). Physics (SPH4U) and Biology (SBI4U) are recommended.
International: $57,020
DescriptionIn the Earth and Environmental Systems Major, students use multidisciplinary approaches to studying the large-scale interactions between the Earth and planetary systems over a broad spectrum of time-scales, addressing deep timescales of millions to billions of years as well as processes taking place in today’s and in future worlds. Courses take an integrative approach to understanding interactions between the solid Earth, the biosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, addressing how these interactions have developed over geological, historical, and recent time periods. Themes of the program include Earth surface processes (e.g., evolution of landforms and sedimentary basins), paleoclimatology (e.g., drivers of Earth’s natural climate variability), biogeochemistry, Quaternary science (understanding the ice ages) and global environmental change. This program provides broad context over time and space to better understand and provide solutions for the current issues of climate change, resource consumption and global pollution weighing heavily on people and societies.
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*We make every attempt to provide accurate information on prerequisites, programs, and tuition. However, this information is subject to change without notice and we highly recommend that you contact the school to confirm important information before applying.